Academic Discourse in the Outer and Expanding Circles

The three-world ideology-oriented division that characterized most of the second half of the 20th century's Cold War era has given way to what is called today Developed, Emerging, and Developing countries (economies). First World countries have maintained their supremacy and are ranked as Developed countries. Former Second World communist countries, namely Russia and China, together with other countries such as India and Pakistan, are top Emerging countries. A few Third World countries have risen to the rank of  Emerging countries, but many are classified as Developing and some, political correctness aside, are underdeveloped.With the exception of South Korea, perhaps, no Third World country has joined the Developed countries club. Read more about Academic Discourse in the Outer and Expanding Circles

Current Issue

Vol 4 No 2 (2019): Language assessment in the Middle East and North Africa
View All Issues

Arab Journal of Applied Linguistics

ISSN: 2490-4198